Design Robotic Arms

Robot arms are among the most complex and and important parts of a robot. With more operations a robot can do, the robot arm becomes more advanced technological.
The robots use the arms to lift, lower, release, rotate wrist, and pivot sideways the objects. First robot arm developiIn 1950s the scientist George Devol, Jr. Since the 80s robotic arms began to be integrated in industry .

Robot arms have  interactions with the environment . Many flexible task we perform with robot arm.

Depending on the class in which the robot is a part, robot arm can have a different design, different characteristics, and the material that is made the arm may differ.

Since the human arm is very flexible, researchers in the field trying to develop robotic arms which present many of human arm characteristics.

In this article we have  a short introduction concerning the development of a robotic arm, the article is a part of a series of articles aimed to come to help those who want to build robots.

In general terms the components of a robotic arm are:

1.  Link

A robot arm or a robot link is a rigid member that may have relative motion with respect to all other links. This can be definition of a robot arm.

2. Joint

Two links are connected by contact at a joint where their relative motion can be expressed by a single coordinate. Joints are usually two types: revolute(rotary) or prismatic(translatory). Rotary joints allows relative rotation between two links, mean while a prismatic joint allows a translation of relative motion between two links.

3. Manipulator

The main body of a robot can be built with links, joints and other structural components. All these elements together form a manipulator. A manipulator becomes a robot when the wrist and gripper are attached, and the control system is implemented.

4. Wrist



The kinematic structure of the robot arm allows to postion its end point at any (x,y,z) location in the 3D space (…. within the robot’s working space)
In order to provide for the proper orientation of the hand/end-effector the robot arm should have a wrist. Typically a robot wrist provides the same 3D rotations as a human hand: roll, pitch, and yaw. A wrist where the three axes of rotation intersect is called a spherical wrist. These have the advantage that the mathematical model used to calculate the wrist joint angles from their
position and orientation in space is soluble.

The kinematic structure of the robot arm allows to postion its end point at any (x,y,z) location inthe 3D space (…. within the robot’s working space). In order to provide for the proper orientation of the hand/end-effector the robot arm should havea wrist. Typically a robot wrist provides the same 3D rotations as a human hand: roll, pitch, andyaw. A wrist where the three axes of rotation intersect is called a spherical wrist. These have the advantage that the mathematical model used to calculate the wrist joint angles from their position and orientation in space is soluble.

5. Gripper

Robot grippers are a type of end of arm tooling (EOAT) used to move parts from one location to another. They can be driven hydraulically, electrically, and pneumatically. Dual grippers offer quick part changeovers. Vacuum grippers and electromagnets also offer other benefits.

6. Actuators

Actuators are drivers acting as the muscle of robots to change their configuration.The muscle of the robots can be of electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic type and have to be controllable.

8. Sensors

8.

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